Wednesday, May 27, 2020
Civilization, at its core, was created to suppress barbaric instinct. However, in extreme circumstances, it is possible for instinct to prevail over civility. William GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s timeless Lord of the Flies is a prime example of instinct overpowering civility, along with many other important themes and ideas. Savagery and darkness are two significant motifs that reoccur in the book, both of which supply evidence to the theme of the novel that the nature of mankind is savage and dark at its core. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The motif of savagery beings to operate early on in the novel with the intent to disparage civility. Towards the beginning of the book, the boys have the sensible idea of building a signal fire in order to alert any ships in the area. However, this civil idea quickly turns savage, as fire quickly engulfs the entire forest, ultimately killing one of the littluns. The boys are essentially left with no control over the fire: Ã¢â¬Å"Small flames stirred at the trunk of a tree and crawled away through leaves and brushwood, dividing and increasing. One patch touched a tree trunk and scrambled up like a bright squirrelÃ¢â¬ (Golding 44). The author compares the fire to a Ã¢â¬Å"squirrel,Ã¢â¬ animalistic by nature, with no sense of human order controlling it, thus operating in a very savage fashion. The passage continues: Ã¢â¬Å"the squirrel leapt on the wings of the wind and clung to another standing tree, eating downwardsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Beneath the capering boys a quarter of a mile square of forest was savage with smoke and flameÃ¢â¬ (44). The author continues with comparing the fire, the brainchild of the boys, to an animal, further symbolizing the beginning of the transition of the boys from civilized humans to barbaric animals. Additionally, the author depicts the immense fire with a sense of confusion and chaos, progressing the idea of this Ã¢â¬Å"savageÃ¢â¬ fire. This fire is a landmark event in the novel. Before the fire, the boys try to maintain civility, thus preventing savagery, with the election of a leader and the use of the conch. However, the fire marks the transition in the novel where most of the boys, excluding Piggy and Simon, embrace their savage roots and ignore civility as a whole. The violent fire the boys have created even kills one of their own, yet, still only a few kids continue to make active attempts to try to remain civilized; the others begin to buy into the savage and uncivilized lifestyle because it is human nature to do so. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As the novel progresses, the boys become increasingly savage in nature, destroying their innocence, and providing evidence for the theme. Throughout the novel, Simon is seen to be a very innocent character with a rare sense of morality on the island. He is even considered by some to be the Christ-like figure of the novel due to the biblical parallels in his Ã¢â¬Å"sacrificialÃ¢â¬ death and his deep connection with nature and the island. Yet, with Jack as their leader, the boys descend upon Simon like a piece of meat, with savagery in their hearts, ultimately murdering him: Ã¢â¬Å"Simon was crying out something about a dead man on a hill. Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood Do him in! The beast [Simon] was on its knees in the center, its arms folded over its faceÃ¢â¬ ¦ At once the crowd surged after it, poured down the rock, leapt onto the beast, screamed, struck, bit, toreÃ¢â¬ (153). SimonÃ¢â¬â¢s death is a sacrifice that reveals the true savage nature of these b oys, and of mankind as a whole. The boys project their own evil and experience onto Simon by believing him, although pure at heart, to be the beast, which causes them to Ã¢â¬Å"tear himÃ¢â¬ to shreds with their own bare hands. This act speaks akin to the power of savagery. These boys, originally wealthy and proper English boys, in just a few weeks, have become savages. They are able to literally murder one of their own brethren based on a sheer insecurity. If proper and innocent English school children can revert to savagery so easily, to killing each other, it exemplifies that all humans are, in essence, savages by nature, and that civility is a mere tool to suppress savagery and instinct. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The author uses the motif of darkness to demonstrate that all humans are dark and Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ at heart, which correlates to the theme of the book. When Jack and the chorus are first introduced in the story, a sense of darkness blunders around: Ã¢â¬Å"Within the diamond haze of the beach something dark was fumbling along. Ralph saw it first and watched till the intentness of his gaze drew all eyes that way. Then the creature stepped from mirage onto clear sand and they saw that the darkness was not all shadow, but mostly clothingÃ¢â¬ (19). The darkness, a symbol of evil and the unknown, foreshadows the bad intentions and mystery of the chorus, Jack in particular. Metaphorically, Jack and the chorus are living masses of evil and darkness, yet the others still flock to follow them later in the story. However, Jack and the chorus are not the only Ã¢â¬Å"darkÃ¢â¬ and evil beings on the island. In fact, the author believes all of mankind to be inherently evil, hence: Ã¢â¬Å"Ra lph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of manÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called PiggyÃ¢â¬ (202). In the closing moments of the book, Ralph realizes that all of the boys, including himself, have lost their innocence. Furthermore, Ralph becomes aware that all men and women are innately evil. Ã¢â¬Å"The darkness of manÃ¢â¬â¢s heartÃ¢â¬ plagues each and every individual. Ralph finally understands that all of the savagery and death that occurred on the island was due to the darkness of manÃ¢â¬â¢s soul, manÃ¢â¬â¢s true evil nature. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In William GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s Lord of the Flies, savagery and darkness are reoccurring motifs that provide textual evidence to the theme that mankind is barbaric and evil at its nature. Throughout the novel, savagery is shown to belittle civility, thus rendering it ineffective, revealing manÃ¢â¬â¢s true instinctual nature. Furthermore, the author illustrates that darkness is ever-present in the soul of all men and women, revealing manÃ¢â¬â¢s true evil nature. The Lord of the Flies shows that, given the chance, it is relatively easy for man to break the bonds of civilization that rule them, and develop into savage beasts.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
The subject matter of the Ã¢â¬Å"RepublicÃ¢â¬ is the nature of justice and its relation to human existence. Book I of the Ã¢â¬Å"republicÃ¢â¬ contains a critical examination of the nature and virtue of justice. Socrates engages in a dialectic with Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus, a method which leads to the asking and answering of questions which directs to a logical refutation and thus leading to a convincing argument of the true nature of justice. And that is the main function of Book I, to clear the ground of mistaken or inadequate accounts of justice in order to make room for the new theory. Socrates attempts to show that certain beliefs and attitudes of justice and its nature are inadequate or inconsistent, and present a way in which thoseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Socrates, which recognizes that justice is an attribute of the good person, still sees CephalusÃ¢â¬â¢ view as only possible with sufficient material wealth. Cephalus is not a reflective person, it is obviously suggested when he states that a person can satisfy the requirements of a just and good life by possessing the right disposition and equipped with adequate wealth. But that is all that his life experiences have shown him and unlike Socrates, Cephalus is not a man for whom unexamined life is not worth living. Therefore SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ response to Cephalus is not a direct confrontation. Socrates comments that the value of talking to old men is that they may teach us something about the life they have traversed. They may tell us the benefits of old age, however, Plato exploits CephalusÃ¢â¬â¢ account of old age to suggest that old age is not a source of wisdom. The wisdom and goodness which enables Cephalus to see his age as a beneficial state need not come with old age. To most men, as Cephalus recognizes, old age is a source of misery and resentment. Only those who have order and peace with themselves can Ã¢â¬Å"accept old age with equanimity.Ã¢â¬ And so it turns out that neither youth nor old age are conditions which enable people to perceive the just way to live; its character and a right disposition. Cephalus supposes that material possession is responsible for the correct perception of what makes a life good. But take theShow MoreRelatedThe Republic - Book 1 - Theme of Justice2417 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagessubject matter of the Republic is the nature of justice and its relation to human existence. Book I of the republic contains a critical examination of the nature and virtue of justice. Socrates engages in a dialectic with Thrasymachus, Polemarchus, and Cephalus, a method which leads to the asking and answering of questions which directs to a logical refutation and thus leading to a convincing argument of the true nature of justice. And that is the main function of Book I, to clear the groundRead More Intangible Justice is in the Soul Essay1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntangible Justice is in the Soul PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, although officially divided into ten books, can be separated into two very distinct sections. The first section, roughly spanning Books I through IV, contains a rather tangible investigation of justice in practice. Namely, the section considers what acts or occurrences are just, either in a city or in a man. The second section, beginning around Book V and continuing through the end of the dialogue, deals with the much more abstract issue ofRead MoreThis weekÃ¢â¬â¢s reading centered on the social contract between God and the Israelites. The reader,600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessocial contract between God and the Israelites. The reader, who had grown up familiar with the Exodus, found a much deeper meaning and contextual understanding in this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s reading. Specifically, the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention focused on two key aspects: 1) GodÃ¢â¬â¢s control over nature as the contextual focus, and 2) how Exodus, Deuteronomy and Leviticus set forth blue prin ts blue prints for a society. Moreover, the reader was previously familiar with the more traditional version of the commandments in DeuteronomyRead MoreThe Apology Is Plato s Retelling Of Socrates s Trail1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesApology is PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s retelling of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢s trail. Within his account, he portrays Socrates as a confident, but almost haughty, and reasonable man. The main philosophical themes that Plato presents through Socrates are wisdom, justice, and his purpose in the community. Socrates is at this trial because he has been accused of two things: 1) Ã¢â¬Å"Socrates is guilty of wrongdoing in that he busies himself studying things in the sky and below the earth; he makes the worse into the stronger argument, and he teachesRead MoreDepiction Of Struggle And Division889 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescommon themes amongst them. By doing so, we were supposed to be able to more deeply understand each text and the argument each was making. Throughout the readings, th e most prominent themes were that of struggle and division, though it is certainly more prevalent and obvious in certain texts than others. Though all the texts depict division and struggle, they focus on different societal divisions This depiction of struggle first became clear during the reading of Plato s Republic in book I, whereRead MorePlatos Philosophy and Works1915 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Prompt: Book X of the Republic does not reflect the rest of Platos work. On the one hand, Plato stages a final showdown between philosophy and literature (or myth). On the other hand, the book concludes with the elaborate legend of Ers journey into the afterlife creating a determining myth factor. The prompt invites one to make sense of this contradiction. What is the point of the final myth? What does Plato manage to convey through it that he wasnt able to show or persuade with the philosophicalRead MoreGender Based Violence During And After Conflict1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnothing new. It has been going on for hundreds of years all over the world (Burn) and many other documents, articles and websites cite this statement. This specific topic I chose because I was unaware of it before reading about it in our course work book Ã¢â¬Å"Women Across Cultures,Ã¢â¬ by Burn. This matter is new to me and I would like to discuss how this issue of violence connects women around the globe. I would like to refresh your memory about this topic from week two, chapter 2, (Burn) and our UniversalRead MoreThe s Defence Of Injustice1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlauconÃ¢â¬â¢s defence of injustice, which he presents to Socrates in book 11 of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic. For the purposes of this paper, I will focus on the overriding theme in GlauconÃ¢â¬â¢s argument; that we are only just for the sake of consequences and will conclude by agreeing with this notion. Glaucon, dissatisfied with previous appraisals of justice, seeks to challenge Socrates by strengthening ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ defence of injustice in book 1. Ã¢â¬ËThis is exactly what he gives us Ã¢â¬â 3 arguments that support ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreReconciling The Divergence Of The Nature Of Man Between Classic And Modern Thinkers1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Nature of Man between Classic and Modern Thinkers Within Book 2 of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s work The Republic, SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ companion Glaucon describes the tale of the ring of Gyges, challenging Socrates on the nature of man. Within the ring of Gyges scenario, Glaucon posits that when an individual has the power granted by a ring of absolute invisibility that grants impunity, Ã¢â¬Å"no one [Ã¢â¬ ¦] would be so incorruptible that he would stay on the path of justice or stay away from other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s property, when he could takeRead MoreAn Analysis Of The Oedipus And Plato 1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKAUFMANNÃ¢â¬â¢S OEDIPUS AND PLATOÃ¢â¬â¢S SOCRATES In Chapter Four of his book, Tragedy and Philosophy, Walter Kaufmann claims that SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Oedipus Rex is one of the greatest tragedies ever written in part because it presents so vividly five characteristics of human life which make our existence so tragic. The purpose of this paper will be, first, to present KaufmannÃ¢â¬â¢s view and, second, to apply these same characteristics to PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogues in general and to the characters in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogues,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
With the reference to at least two theories of learning, discuss how differing theoretical perspectives, and our interpretation of these, might influence professional practice when working with children and young people. There are many different ways in which children can learn, for instance, behaviourism, cognitive learning theory, humanism, emotional literacy, brain-based learning. These theories have an impact on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s holistic development and professionals have to ensure they meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. First the essay will focus on the behaviourism theory and then cognitive learning theory and will outline the background and basics of these theories and then the essay will look at how these theories can benefit and influence professionals practice when working with children and young people in an infant school setting (aged 4-7). Professional practice is ensuring service, responsive to government and needs of public, accountability, fairness and effectiveness these principles are fundamental to good professional practice and inform us of the expectations. Early childhood educators are required to demonstrate an understanding of chi ldrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development and the ways of learning and how to implement these relevant theories into childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning experience. Behaviourism is a theory of learning established in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s to 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and was founded by John B. Watson (1978-1958) based on the idea that behaviours can meShow MoreRelatedThe Getting It Right For Every Child1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEvery Child (GIRFEC) framework was introduced through the development of the Children and Young People Act, 2014 which intends to protect the well-being of children and young people of Scotland (Tisdall, 2015). The GIRFEC framework aims to provide the appropriate services and support to children/young people where the key concepts of this approach are prevention, early intervention, family support and ensuring that children and families are getting the right help at the right time (Education ScotlandRead MoreWhat is the social ecological model? How can this perspective be used in practice to deepen understanding of the lives of children, young people and families in poverty and promote wellbeing?1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿What is the social ecological model? How can this perspective be used in practice to deepen understanding of the lives of children, young people and families in poverty and promote wellbeing? In social care services, models and theories are constructed in order to promote knowledge and understanding of particular areas. With a clear understanding established it enables practitioners to analyse, debate and practice in the most effective way. The particular model focus for this essay is the socialRead MoreSocial Ecological Perspective Essay1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBronfenbrenner in 1979 social ecological perspectives have been widely used to formulate practice guidelines and government policies when planning service needs for children, young people and their families. This essay will discuss what a social ecological perspective consists of, what limitations it may incur and how it can assist us in developing best practice and understanding when working with children, young people and families. It will draw on examples from K218 for illustrative purposes. SocialRead MoreThe Social Ecological Perspective Of Children, Young People And Their Families1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis study will examine the social ecological perspective of children, young people and their families and will demonstrate how this perspective can help in developing practice. It will do so by describing the Social Ecological Perspective by using the Ecological model introduced by Urie Bronfenbrenner (K218 learning guide 3, section 3.1) and demonstrating how the model is adapted and practiced within different frameworks like the Scottish Government framework Ã¢â¬ËA Guide To Getting it Right for EveryRead MoreMarket Analysis : Saudi Arabia1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarket analysis summary Among the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia contains some of the largest markets with over 27 million consumers and several global enterprises. Saudi society is often described as young, dynamic and affluent which often cause rapid growth in several sectors. It has the world s 19th largest economy and the region s highest influx of FDI. Public-private partnerships are not uncommon in the Kingdom which allows many avenues for venture capital funding. FurthermoreRead MoreChoose 3 of Your Direct Observations Carried Out in Your Plo. Using These as the Context, Produce a Critical Reflection on What You Have Learned About Your Own Practice.1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesout in your PLO. Using these as the context, produce a critical reflection on what you have learned about your own practice. The purpose of this assignment is to critically reflect on how effective my practice is by analysing my own direct work with service users and colleagues whilst on placement at a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s home. It is vital for me to be able to reflect on my own practice as I can adapt how I think, feel and behave in order to better meet the needs of service users. This statement is agreedRead MoreMarket Analysis : Saudi Arabia1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarket analysis summary Among the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia contains some of the largest markets with over 27 million consumers and several global enterprises. Saudi society is often described as young, dynamic and affluent which often cause rapid growth in several sectors. It has the world s 19th largest economy and the region s highest influx of FDI. Public-private partnerships are not uncommon in the Kingdom which allows many avenues for venture capital funding. FurthermoreRead MoreDifferent Theories Which Underpin Health And Social Care Practice1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPhilosophy of working in partnership Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principles of support Ã¢â¬ ¢ Different theories which underpin health and social care practice Ã¢â¬ ¢ Different models of partnership across health and social care settingsÃ¢â¬Æ' Philosophy of working in partnership What is partnership? Explain strengths and weaknesses Partnership is when two or more organisations work together, showing cooperation and collaboration. This can provide better care and support for service users. For example, different funds working togetherRead MoreEssay about SCMP1 Assessment and planning with young people1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesduring g assessment, equal opportunities must be practised at all times ensuring all young people receive equal access, consider their culture background, learning needs and any disability. Be positive focusing on their strengths and not their weakness, and always use an holistic approach you need to look at the child as a whole. Young people and children are affected by wide variety of personal and external factors in their development and are conditioned by variants such as family environment andRead MoreThe Effects Of Trauma On Children And Professional Adults Essay882 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBased on the Perry reading that outlines the effects of trauma on children (2003) that outlines the alarm reactions, responses to threat, post-traumatic stress, emotional memory impact, numbing, avoidance, hyperarousal and disassociation responses to trauma, it is quite evident that mindfulness would be quite helpful to help youth process their emotions and experiences in a healthy and productive manner. Since traumatic experiences have such a large impact on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological, emotional and physical
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the wireless network security and prevention methods. Answer: Introduction Background Wireless networks are one of the major issues in computing and information technology that are prone to many security threats and attacks. This area of wireless networks involves information transfer hence needs security to ensure that an organizations information is not breached. Wireless networks can be secured through many different means as discussed in this essay. Scope of engagement This essay looks into the threats that wireless networks are likely to face. On top of that, the essay also discusses the different ways that can be applied to deal with the threats and also more on preventive measures, which are meant to make sure that security attack issues do not occur. Tools used In doing a research on wireless network security and preventive methods, the scope of a local area network was applied. The different tools used are the ones used locally in the network. This tools include personal computers, switches, and the network itself. Other tools for communication within the local area network were also considered. Summary of findings Impact in life Anantvalee Wu (2007) explain what it takes to go remote for the most part, which makes use of an access point for a web like a DSL modem or a link to a remote switch. This action transmits a sign through the air up to a maximum of one hundred feet. Any device that is within the hundred feet coverage can get the sign from the air and access the web. If no precautionary measures are taken, any person close can make use of the system. The implication is that nearby programmers or other persons could piggyback the system or access information in the device. When approved individual makes use of the system to carry out an unauthorized activity or send malicious software, the action could be followed back to the record. Use Encryption on the Wireless Network When you go remote, you ought to scramble the data you send to the remote system, so that close-by aggressors cannot listen stealthily on these interchanges. Encryption scrambles the data sent into a code for it not to be open to others. Making use of encryption is the best approach to secure the system from intruders. Two primary types of encryption are used for this reason: Wi-Fi Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). The personal computer, switch and other gadgets used must make use of the same encryption. WPA2 is the most grounded and its use is applied on the rare chance that a decision is made. This encryption algorithm protects the network against general programmers. WEP encryption algorithm is also utilized by some more seasoned switches, in which there is no shielding against some particular programs for hacking. Another switch with WPA2 capacity can be purchased (Shin, Ma, Mishra Arbaugh, 2006). Access should be allowed to specific gadgets to gain access to the remote system. Every device that speaks with a system is an example of a Media Access Control (MAC) address. In most cases, remote switches have a system that allows specific gadgets with particular MAC locations to get access to the system. Many programmers have made use of the MAC addresses, so its dependence alone is not good. Secure the Router It is additionally vital to shield the system from assaults over the web by keeping the switch secure. The switch coordinates activity between the nearby system and the web. Along these lines, it is the first line of safeguard for guarding against such assaults. If you do not find a way to secure the switch, outsiders could access delicate individual or money related data on the gadget. Outsiders additionally could seize control of the switch, to direct the network to deceitful sites. A change of the switch name from the default one is required. The identifier of the switch, commonly referred to as the administration set identifier (SSID) is a standard that means a default ID that is allocated by the producer. The name should be changed to another one that no other person knows. Follow the recent advancements in technology: To ensure security, the accompanying product to the switch needs periodic updating. Before placing another switch, one should visit the site of the marker to see if there are variants of the product to download. Finding out about the most recent form, enroll the switch with the maker and sign up to get upgrades. What's more, after securing the switch, keep in mind to secure the PC as well. Utilize the same fundamental PC security rehearses that for any PC are associated with the web. For instance, use assurances like antivirus, antispyware, and a firewall - and stay up with the latest. Change the name of the home remote system When the home remote system has been set up, you have to change the SSID (Service Set Identifier). This is the name of the home system, the name other cell phones will see when attempting to associate with the Internet by utilizing the remote system from the home. The reason that a change of its name is needed is entirely simple to figure. Altering the name expands the trouble for a programmer to access the system. For the most part, switch makers allot the name of the organization that delivered the switch and it could be something like "Linksys", "Cisco" or "Belkin" (Anantvalee Wu, 2007). If the SSID is not adjusted, a programmer has a superior shot of breaking into a system, just by knowing the producer of the switch. Utilize this manual for roll out the vital improvements. Also, one additionally thing identified with this progression: Do not use the name or the family name so as to abstain from being recognized as the proprietor of the system. This is another point of interest that could give favorable position for a potential programmer or for an online criminal that may endeavor a data fraud operation. Pick a reliable and exceptional secret word for the remote system The remote switch comes pre-set with a default secret key. The issue is that this secret default word is anything but difficult to figure by programmers, particularly is they know the producer's name for the switch. At the point when setting a decent secret key for the remote system, ensure it is no less than 20 characters in length and incorporates numbers, letters, and different images. This setting will keep other individuals from getting to the system. Despite the fact that as a rule, it is nothing more genuine than some neighbor "taking" from the system transmission capacity speed, you may need to manage other all the more difficult circumstances, as online crooks that can get to the system to "tune in" to the activity information and recover touchy data. Expand the security by empowering system encryption There are a couple of well-known encryption alternatives for remote systems, as WEP, WPA, and WPA2. The last type of encryption, WPA2, is favored for its enhanced security and particularly if there is a home system. The choice to encode activity is valuable if one has to make the correspondence signals unusable for any unapproved outsider programming. As of now all remote gadgets out there bolster this innovation and it is normal information to utilize WPA2, which has a more noteworthy level of security. Impair the remote system when not at home This alternative is helpful, particularly when leaving home for broadened timeframes, for an excursion or a couple of days. This security measure, other than helping you to lessen power utilization, it will clearly stop any programmers that could tune into the system's movement or might attempt to get to it for noxious purposes. The position of setting up the switch in the house It could be a smart thought to put the remote switch as close as would be prudent to the center of the home. What's more, it's not only for each spot or room in the house to have the same access to the Internet but since you would prefer not to have the remote sign extent reach a lot outside the home, where it can be effectively gotten by programmers. Thus, don't put it excessively near a window, from where the sign can be effortlessly gotten to from outside, even at some separation, and may likewise take after our fourth govern to debilitate the switch when leaving the home. Pick a solid secret key for the system executive To set up the remote switch, generally get to an online stage or page, where adjustments are made to the system settings. As everyone knows, it is something ordinary to discover a switch with default certifications, for example, "Administrator" and "secret key" (Anantvalee Wu, 2007). Furthermore, these default login qualifications are not all that hard to break by a programmer. Most changes we do on an online stage are things like setting a solid secret key for the remote system or changing the system's name, both changes being made to guarantee a more prominent level of assurance from online offenders' noxious activities. Be that as it may if an IT criminal can get to the director stage and access the system's setup and design settings, this will demolish the day without a doubt. Stay up with the latest Consider the switch's product like whatever another programming you have on the working framework. It might be the antivirus program or whatever other application running on the framework (Xiao, Lin Du, 2007). The switch's firmware, similar to some other programming, contains defects which can get to be significant vulnerabilities unless they are immediately settled by firmware discharges from the producer. The issue is that most switches don't have the choice to introduce the most recent security upgrades and every once in a while one has to check the official site for security fixes. We should not overlook that a portion of the most noticeably bad security ruptures originated from security gaps in unpatched programs and working frameworks. Ensure the Network amid Mobile Access Applications now permit you to get to the home system from a cell phone. Before that, it is imperative to make certain that some security elements are set up. Try not to give outsiders a chance to utilize the system Secret key ensures the remote association. Turn on WEP (wired equivalency security) or WPA (Wi-Fi ensured access) on the majority of the gadgets, including the switch, the media focus, and the Microsoft Xbox stimulation framework. For more data, see Set up a security key for a remote system. Move the remote switch Place the remote access point far from windows and close to the focal point of the home to diminish the sign quality outside of the planned scope region. Conclusion In conclusion, it is imperative to comprehend that keeping all products current is important and counting the web program, with programmed upgrading. This measure is undertaken to ensure that the firewall is turned on and use antivirus and antispyware programming from a source that you trust, for example, Microsoft Security Essentials or Windows Defender (incorporated with Windows 8). Ordinarily, one can get to the switch's interface from a gadget associated with the system, yet a few switches permit to get to even from remote frameworks. To stop online programmers access to the switch's private settings, it is protected to handicap this choice in the switch's settings. References Anantvalee, T., Wu, J. (2007). A survey on intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc networks. InWireless Network Security(pp. 159-180). Springer US. Shin, M., Ma, J., Mishra, A., Arbaugh, W. A. (2006). Wireless network security and interworking.Proceedings of the IEEE,94(2), 455-466. Xiao, Y., Lin, Y. B., Du, D. Z. (2007). Wireless network security.EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking,2006(1), 1-2.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Introduction A situation comedy is a comic television series composed of episodes or scenes involving similar group of characters dealing with an issue, abnormal situation and many other scenes that may arise1. The short form of situation comedy is sitcom. This is usually accompanied by jokes as part of a conversation. A successful situation comedy is one that has high frequency of laughter.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What Makes a Successful Situation Comedy? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The frequency can be three to four times in a minute. Therefore, situation comedies make us fulfill our desires to be happy. It is also concerned with the way we often lose the desire to be happy and lose our direction because of unreasonable fears and desires that are misled. They show how the central conflict of human life is played out by between people. Situation comedies give its audience several kinds of satisfacti ons2. Several ingredients make a successful situation comedy. These important components must all be present in any situation comedy that can be termed as successful. The ingredients are character creation, titles themes, situations and locations, pace, irregular expressions and epilogue. The strength or clarity of these ingredients may vary from one comedy to another3. These ingredients can be discussed as follows: Character creation This is the most important factor in a successful situation comedy. Development of the way in which a given character behaves and relates with other characters and their environment is called character creation (characterization)4. In a situation comedy, there are many, several facets of characterization. This comprise of: An individual character Each character is given different attributes describing their past and present behavior. In a situation comedy, the future behavior of a character is not clearly developed. However, the knowledge of the future attributes of the character is very important in order for one to guess what is to come next. This knowledge may vary on the level of Ã¢â¬Å"most probableÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"most unlikely.Ã¢â¬ It is important to develop a list of attributes of the characters, but one should be cautious enough not to exaggerate. In this case, people are not interested in the internal personality of a character but the external persona.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this kind of comedy, the author briefly highlights character even if the author has a thorough knowledge of the character. It is also necessary to consider a favourable character in this kind of comedy for instance Tony Hancock whose background was briefly highlighted in the comedy HancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour.5 It is not mandatory for characters in this kind of comedy to fit best into situations concerned appropriately. Thi s is because the outcome may be funnier due to the misfit of the character into the situation. For instance, the 23 Railway Cuttings, East Cheam was sometimes understood being the property of the council, but in many occasions a private landlord was in-charge6. The relationship of a character with other characters A successful situation comedy deals with more than one character operating in any environment. The presence of more than one character is the main vehicle to cause humour. This enables one to see how a character interacts with another character and the response of other characters. This response of other characters may be verbal or through action7. Status A successful situation comedy must also have varying status. These statuses may be imaginary or real. There may also be state of conflict and its resolution. Insults There is usually a tendency of those characters who seek status to be rude, insulting or unpleasant. However, this may not be the case in all situation comed ies that are successful. Each one of the audience during a successful situation comedy will try to identify with at least some part of these characters, their behavior or problems they pass through, even though such behaviors may be considered awkward in real life situations. The insults in this kind of comedy will always come out spontaneous and amusing. The insults may also result into a nervous laugh8. Responding to insults The manner in which a character responds to insults determines the quality of a situation comedy. In a successful sitcom, the receiver does not take the insult as a personal affront. For instance, a receiver of an insult may respond by hitting the issuer like in the comedy Fawlty Towers series Sybil was overwhelmed by the diatribes of Basil.9Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What Makes a Successful Situation Comedy? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another important ingredient under charact erization is the temperament characters. This is where the author tells of how the character behaves most of the time. It does not describe the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence, beliefs, social position, physical attributes and such like things. The temperament characteristics of a given character may be ranked as strong, medium or weak. In a situation comedy, one needs to ensure that the specific character posses a mixture of attributes with varying degrees10. For instance in the case of a strong attributes we can talk of a character who is childish, grasping, talkative, and unscrupulous. While, in the case of weakness, we can talk of a character that is resigned, secretive, touchy, and talkative. This method should be able to produce characters suitable for a particular situation. A situation comedy dominated by characters of almost the same character will not be interesting to the audience11. For instance in the comedy HancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour there is only one Sid type and one Hancock type. The comedy should have at least one strong type, more than two weak types, and a few normal types of characters. The laughter usually comes from the antics of the strong types as they try to interact with other characters. In most cases, the author tries to develop strong characters that experience frustrating, childish, pointless, off-beam, and depressing relationships. The type of speech and mannerism portrayed by a character also determines the quality of a situation comedy. The characters rarely laugh regardless of how hilariously they are found by the audience. This means that, in a good situation comedy, the characters will find no true enjoyment in the situations they face. In this case, you will find that the situation under consideration is one that the audience will have no difficulty dealing with but one character will be portrayed as being unable to deal with12. The character leading to inappropriate, stupid, delayed, or no action will misunderstand the nat ure of the problem. Things will always become worse before they are better in the sense that the character does not learn from experiences. This means that the character does not carry new life experiences forward to the next. Therefore, the audience is found laughing most of the time because they are able to predict accurately how worse the situation will become from simple beginnings of situations.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Title themes The choice of the title in a situation comedy determines how successful it will be. The title should represent something that is obvious and clear in the very first episode. In the comedy, HancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour, it is clear from the title that whatever is under discussion is about time. Another ingredient of a successful comedy is the theme of the comedy. The theme describes well what the comedy is all about. For a situation comedy, designed to have many series the theme should be able to support a good number of humorous situations. If it cannot achieve such then, the theme might best fit a single comedy play. The description of the theme has little to tell about the humor of the work. A successful situation comedy cannot be made up of a theme that hints at improbable characters in situations that are unlikely. Situations Choice of situations also makes a good situation comedy. Situations are which characters face. Each situation stands for some kind of problem. T hese problems may be tough or trivial. Regardless of the situations, they create the need for taking a specific action. The characters take the best action possible to that situation even if it means ignoring the situations then that would mean that it is the best solution at that time. It is necessary for these situations to be funny13. In a situation comedy, situations are made funny when one of the characters is made to respond to them in a way that will seem inappropriate to the audience. The situation element snowballs and the characters become more and more troubled when the first action taken is inappropriate. This causes the characters to remain in trouble for most of the time or the rest of the episode. The author exploits several situations within an episode. Each situation in this case involves a subset of character. Multiple situations are made to start and end at different times in an episode. The author plays some elements of a situation as sequences of dreams, flash-f orwards or flashbacks. For instance in the comedy Fawlty Towers, the last page of this comedy shows that the problems that Basil faced cropped from the fact that he under stood in his mind that the pianist in the concert was the important guest14. However, it later turned to be the roll musician and the pink-haired rock. These attributes in the hotel clientele were unacceptable according to Basil. Then Sybil overrides Basil even though he wants to refuse a booking. The stress on Basil increased until he went pop. In a situation comedy, very few situations go deeper than the above. Locations Choice of location is critical to any situation comedy. A location is where characters are put. A successful situation comedy is set within four walls of the sitting room. This can be seen in the case of the palaces of the Sultan of Brunei. There should be a reason for changing characters from one location to another. Economic use of the location can be seen in Fawlty Towers. In this comedy, an e pisode kicks with the Sybil lobbing with Basil. The audience knows very little about the other part of the hotel. The audience only knows about the exterior in this case. The audiences can occasional see Sybil and BasilÃ¢â¬â¢s room, but they cannot exactly pinpoint the location of the room. Successful situation comedies have interior sets. When an interior set turns into an exterior set, then the audience can only view events in the absence of dialogue. The only thing that can be heard in an exterior situation is background music and some sound effects. Pace Every successful situation comedy must operate at a considerable pace. Pace is a recipe for generating a substantial number of laughs in a successful comedy15. It is not easy to create humor in the event of prolonged silence and idleness (characters sitting about doing nothing) of the characters. For there to exist laughs in the comedy there must be something is in progress or that is being said. Pace implies speed, but it is important to spread evenly the available elements of humor through the entire period of each humor. A successful situation comedy does not need humor to be bunched at the beginning or at the end16. Such a scenario does not hold the attention of the audience. A successful sitcom will always have same pace in all its episodes. Any consideration of a serious series idea must stand up well to the question on whether such sidesplitting material can be produced in three hours in the case of the six half hour episodes of the orthodox British format. Hancock proved himself as master of comic timing, instinctively knowing how long a pause should take there to be a maximum effect. Irregular expressions The dialogue lines spoken by improbable characters working their way through difficult situations is not the only source of humor in a situation comedy but, a combination of it with other elements. Most of the giggling in a situation comedy may arise from the gestures made by characters, verbal tics, and facial expressions, unexpected noises off together with other things to do with the manner in which dialogue is delivered or the physical action. These are called irregular expressions. They include breeding, double take, hypochondria, and phobias, jumping the gun, malapropism, and mispronunciation, noises off, quick thinking, silly laughs, speech impediments, slow dawning, and tics. Breeding comprises such elements as Ã¢â¬Ëone of thisÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËYah,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËYahÃ¢â¬â¢ plus many other high level vocalizations achieved by mispronouncing some English like Ã¢â¬ËouÃ¢â¬â¢ sounds like Ã¢â¬ËdoubtÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËaboutÃ¢â¬â¢ will become Ã¢â¬Ëa bite,Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËcloutÃ¢â¬â¢ becomes Ã¢â¬ËcliteÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. People with breeding wear their clothes in a funny way like rolling up sleeves. Double take is a kind of quick dawning that is very useful in a situation comedy. A hypochondrium is where people are worried of some aspects of their health , with a substantial reason. This may result into amusement because of doing it at different times. Watching another person removes our own fears. Phobias represent fear of doing something in a character. This may be fear of insects, flying, darkness, boarding a speedy vehicle, and elevators. These result into nervous laughter when watched. Incorrect anticipation of what someone is going to say is known as jumping the gun. This may happen in such a way that you rush to say something or attempt unsuccessfully to act in a certain manner before it is necessary or the right time reaches. This makes a situation comedy to be more interesting. Malapropism is the use of muddled speech. It is used in characters that are intended to appear to be drunk. It can also be used on characters that have a high status and their status needs to be lowered17. Mispronunciation can be used to lower self-esteem of a character. This is used when the author wants to convey a good education. When used in the right situation noises off can be used to cause laughing. Noises off may be in the form of revving of engines, shouts, the crash of a falling crockery, tires screeching, footsteps, bed room sounds, announcements from public address systems, barking doors, closing and opening of distant doors, foghorn of a ship, blaring Hi-fi, and many other sounds. Silly laughs can be interesting and infectious. Hasty and not well thought kind of thinking can be referred to as quick thinking. A quick thinker can in most cases find himself or herself making a silly mistake that can stir up laughter. Slow dawning is displayed by varying facial expressions. It is mainly used when some event or fact is familiar to the audience. The act of doing things out of conscious when one is talking is known as tics18. These things may include rubbing the nose, scratching the nose, twitching, pulling the ears, looking at the ceiling while rolling the eyeball, or jangling key or money. Depending on the characterÃ¢â ¬â¢s social background, pictures can be expressed in term of words and phrases such as Ã¢â¬Ëyeah,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËI sayÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. In HancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour, a marvelous talent for facial comedy was displayed by Hancock on the TV screen through the rolling of his eyes, lip sucking, concentrated increasing his brow, puffing of cheeks, suggested the magnitude of internal wrangling. Conclusion This discussion has touched on many issues as far as production of very successful situation comedy is concerned. It is good to understand that although, in the section under pace, it was noted that prolonged silence and inactivity would not introduce the aspect of fun to the audience, there are several situations in comedies, which have chuckled their way through such. This discussion has also focused more on HancockÃ¢â¬â¢s half hour and Fawlty Tower to draw various aspects. The main reason here is that the two contained everything that makes a comedy successful. Such things incl uded a superb contained location, character mix, wide appeal for audience, easy to follow situations, enough humor, pathos, status, pace, slapstick, human interactions that can be recognized, caricature, and life struggles that have no resolutions. These make a series of episodes more interesting and one can be able to watch them more than one time. The title of Fawlty Towers comedy set out the objective of a situation comedy. This was achieved through identifying what makes a situation comedy very successful. Therefore, the way a comedy has been successful done before is just a road map of how one might approach it in later days. Bibliography Asplin, Richard. Gagged Ã¢â¬â A Thriller With Jokes. London: Arrow books, 2004. Goddard, P. Ã¢â¬ËHancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour: A Watershed in British Television ComedyÃ¢â¬â¢, in John Corner (ed.), Popular Television in Britain. BFI, 1991, pp. 75 Ã¢â¬â 87. Lewisohn, M. Radio TimesÃ¢â¬â¢ Guide to TV Comedy. 2nd Ed. Revised. London: BBC Consumer Publishing, 2003. McCann, G. Fawlty Towers. London: Hodder Stoughton, 2007. . Footnotes 1 Goddard, P. Ã¢â¬ËHancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour: A Watershed in British Television ComedyÃ¢â¬â¢, in John Corner (ed.), Popular Television in Britain. BFI, 1991, p. 75. 2 Ibid., p. 76 3 Ibid., p.77. 4 Lewisohn, Mark Ã¢â¬Å"Radio Times Guide to TV ComedyÃ¢â¬ . (London: BBC Worldwide Ltd, 2003), p. 30. 5 Ibid., 33 6 Ibid., p.37. 7 Ibid., p.38 8 Ibid., p.41. 9 Peter Goddard, Ã¢â¬ËHancockÃ¢â¬â¢s Half Hour: A Watershed in British Television ComedyÃ¢â¬â¢, in John Corner (ed.), Popular Television in Britain. BFI, 1991, p. 82. 10 Ibid., p.83. 11 Ibid., 87. 12 Asplin, Richard. Gagged Ã¢â¬â A Thriller With Jokes.( London: Arrow books, 2004), p. 69. 13 Ibid., p.72. 14 Ibid., p.74. 15 McCann, Graham. Fawlty Towers. (London: Hodder Stoughton, 2007), p.46. 16 Ibid., p.49. 17 Ibid., p. 52. 18 Ibid., p. 54. This essay on What Makes a Successful Situation Comedy? was written and submitted by user Tomas Carlson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Story of Jesus Essays Story of Jesus Essay Story of Jesus Essay In some cases Watson considers Paines argument good for nothing (Apology, 120). Paine compares the genealogies of Christ given at the beginning of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, and having found a difference, he concludes that one of them lies and so if they cannot be believed in the very first part of their writing, then nothing that they say afterwards is to be believed (Apology, 121). In Watsons opinion, neither Paines premises nor his conclusion are admissible, since it is unfair to reject all the accounts of the Gospel, saying that the evangelists differ in writing a pedigree of thousands of years ago. Again Watson reasons out that two persons may write a genealogy of a certain individual based on different sources they find without the least intention to write a falsehood. Likewise, Matthew and Luke took their accounts from the public registers and wrote differently; Matthew followed the genealogy of Joseph (Jesus stepfather), and Luke the genealogy of Mary (Jesus mother). Had not their account been true, they would have been exposed by the Jews for having imposed a false genealogy on the Jewish nation (Apology, 122). Watson observes that Paine reads the Bible with a critical eye, pointing out what he thinks as an error, and disowns its moral and historical significance. The ongoing issues indicate that Paines and Watsons contrary views resulted from the 18th century modern biblical criticism, which emphasized fact, discarding the value of faith.16 Paine got used to this method while Watson stuck to Biblical authority. Their difference can be seen in their understanding of truth. What Watson regards as truth appears to be a myth for Paine. Their attitudes towards miracles can be mentioned as an example here. Paine asserts that the miracles cited by Josephus, i.e. opening the sea of Pamphlilia to let Alexander and his army pass is related to the division of the Red Sea narrated in Exodus. Also the two miracles, curing a layman and a blind man which Tacitus relates with Vespasian are synonymous to the miracles told of Jesus Christ by his historians.17 All these miracles are not acceptable to Paine because they sound naturally incredible. Responding to Paine, Watson argues that the miracles recorded in the Bible are the works of God, and therefore superior to those mentioned by Tacitus (Apology, 22). While Paine views the Biblical miracles as mere fables, Watson values them as supernatural acts whose validity cannot be doubted. Taking seriously the sort of contradictions he found in the Gospels, Paine rejects the whole story of Jesus (his virgin birth, crucifixion, and resurrection), considering them as myths derived from heathen mythology.18 Conversely, based on his inference that whenever two individuals write about somebodys story there may be a disagreement in minute points, Watson does not hesitate to accept the story of Jesus Christ as true. Once he is convinced that Christs birth and resurrection are miraculous in their nature, and the testimonies of the Gospels are deemed to be reliable source of divine inspiration, he does not leave any room in his mind to suspect the reality of the biography of Jesus. As a deist, Paine does not accept anything that is opposed to his own experience. But Watsons attitude towards things contrary to his experience is quite different from Paines. Watson states, my philosophy does not teach me to reject every testimony which is opposite to my experience (Apology, 48). The variation of their stand can be seen in the account of the standing still of the sun mentioned in the book of Joshua on which both of them commented. Paine contemptuously rejects the story as a tale only fit to amuse children.19 According to him, God works constantly through the universe, and so extraordinary accounts like the story in the book of Joshua are against Gods law. Defending the validity of the story, Watson brings proof from tradition. As stated by one of the ancient historian, in the time of Ahaz, the sun went back ten degrees. Also Herodotus said, the Egyptian priests told me that the sun had four times deviated from his course, having twice risen where it uniformly goes down and twice gone down where he uniformly rises (Apology, 52). In addition to this, as Joshua himself quoted (Josh. 10: 13), the miracle of the suns standing still was recorded in the book of Jasher. Therefore the testimony of tradition is enough for Watson to accept such a story which has never happened in his lifetime. Furthermore, as a believer in the supernatural deeds of God, Watson grounds his acceptance of the miracle in the book of Joshua on his conviction that the machine of the universe is in the hand of God; he can stop the motion of any part, or of the whole of it, with less trouble and less danger of injuring it than one can stop his watch (Apology, 53). Therefore, contrary to Paine, Watson emphasizes Gods freedom of action, asserting that he can do whatever he likes on the universe. The difference of opinion between Paine and Watson can also be traced out from their treatment of prophecies. According to Paine, prophets are impostures and fortunetellers whose prophecies can have no greater avail than poems and music (Apology, 58). As for Watson, the prophets were divinely inspired to declare Gods will in various manners and degrees of evidence as best suited the occasion and time (Apology, 59). It is true that the prophets are fallible in their nature. But according to Watson, they are not fallible while they are professing to deliver the word of God (Apology, 59). Thus their prophecies are deemed to be real predictions, though expressed in poetic language, and their fulfillment approves the truth of revelation. Paine points out contradictions in the Bible to which Watson replied, appealing to the text. Paine contends that the reason given for the observation of Sabbath in the book of Deuteronomy is different from that of Exodus (Apology, 31). In effect, he invalidates the authority of both books. In his reply, Watson states that as its name DeuteronomyÃ (a repetition of a law) indicates, the law which had been given to the Israelites was repeated to their children 40 years later because Moses their leader was soon to be taken and they were to settle in the midst of idolatrous nations. Thus, for Watson, it is not surprising if some additions and variations appear when a legislator thought fit to republish it many years later its first promulgation (Apology, 32). Paine also investigated the Gospels and found some accounts mentioned by one evangelist, which are not mentioned by all or by any of the others, and deduced that the gospels are not the works of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (Apology, 125). For Watson the reverse is true. He infers that all the evangelists agree in a great many particulars of the life of Jesus: purity of his manners, publicity of his miracles, the manner of his death and resurrection. Hence, while they agree in these great points, Watson goes on, their disagreement in points of little consequence is rather a confirmation of the truth than an indication of the falsehood of their several accounts, because had they agreed in nothing, their testimony ought to have been rejected as a legendary tale, and had they agreed in everything it might have been suspected that they were a set of imposters (Apology, 125).
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Theories of Motivation - Essay Example Locke goal setting theory involves dealing with specific, measurable, realistic and time bound objectives. The goal setting theory works on the principle that, for efficient performance, the individuals in the group must have a common goal to reach, and are explicitly stated. Goals are clear motivation that set standards for personal satisfaction. To achieve the goal, one must be able to set success and meet work challenges that are measurable. Equity theory explains the relation satisfaction in terms of perception of fairness distribution of resources. The concept of Locke can be incorporated into vroomÃ¢â¬â¢s theory this way; the Locke theory rotates on the principle of goal setting and working towards achieving the goal. It can be related to expectancy theory in that the employee must have some particular behaviour in the company to achieve the uttermost results that lead to a reward. It explains the motivation of the employee in achieving goals as a form of motivation. In relating Adams theory to expectancy theory; Adams theory explains the satisfaction of an employee, in which an employee will work or behave in certain ways to earn the equal treatment with other colleagues. The fairness leads to voluntary hard work that yield best